The 2009-2014 World Outlook for Electric Bulk Power Transmission and Control

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Renewable Energy Policy Absent Zambia currently does not have a policy on renewable energy development. However, the renewable energy strategies under the National Energy Policy NEP are not sufficient due to lack of targets, implementation plan, as well as monitoring and evaluation plan on renewable energy developments. Despite commitments and efforts to attract investors in the renewable energy sector, the country does not yet have a renewable energy policy as well as a defined-feed-in-tariff mechanism to promote investments.

The absence of these two policy instruments is a hindrance to investors. It further presents other options that can be used to finance renewable energy tariffs. A feed-in-tariff is simply a guaranteed price established for a utility company that intents to sell renewable electricity to the grid, and guarantees that they will have access to the grid. The price, or tariff, is set so that a profit is guaranteed, thereby ensuring the collective capital resources of the entire system to be part of the renewable energy market.

Any incremental cost of purchasing the renewable energy is shared among all consumers of that energy. Currently, Zambia is in the process of designing and implementing the feed- in-tariff as a mechanism to attract investors in the renewable energy sector.

If successfully implemented, the FIT has potential to compliment the existing generation in renewable energy sector and this would further add to the existing national energy supply. You are paid an export tariff Electricity is created by solar panels. Your electricity supplier pays you for each unit of electricity you generate Review on the economics of climate change, www. The global demand for energy has continued to rise and this has necessitated many national power utility companies to adjust tariffs, among other avenues of generating income.

This policy brief draws lessons from Germany and Namibia as model countries that have made positive strides towards achieving cost reflective tariffs. Germany is widely considered to be the country most successful at rapidly transitioning toward renewable energy systems through feed-in-tariffs. The mechanism provides long-term contracts to renewable energy producers, typically based on the cost of generation of each technology.

Renewable such as wind power, for instance, are awarded a lower per-kWh price, while technologies such as solar and thermal power are offered a higher price, reflecting higher costs. The FIT policies have been designed to support market rapid scale-up, and stand out as having delivered Transparency, Longevity, and Certainty TLC to investors in German renewable energy projects. According to this Act, operators of renewable energy plants are statutorily entitled against the grid operator to payments for electricity exported to the grid.

Even though NamPower is a vertically integrated24 utility, tariffs for generation, transmission and distribution in Namibia are determined separately. Transmission and distribution tariffs are both determined by revenue-requirement method and this assists to recover the full cost, as a mechanism to phase in cost reflective tariffs. The ECB have also initiated a process of developing a grid code for the Namibian electricity industry to specify technical requirements for connection to the electricity grid by third parties such as IPPs and independent distribution entities.

Other initiatives include the annual grants to various electricity distributors for electrification purposes.

Vertical integration is an all-encompassing institutional arrangement where the supply-chain of a company is owned wholly by the same that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or market-specific service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. Consideration is given to funding local governments through more typical sources such as property rates and direct fiscal transfers so that discretionary surcharges can be removed from the retail-tariff derivations.

This was driven by clear targets, development goals and commitment from the government and ministry in charge of energy to spearhead the establishment. In the SADC region, countries such as Swaziland and Zimbabwe introduced policy options towards cost reflective electricity tariffs. Sapp- www. However, urgent measures need to be put in place if the country is to counter the increasing power demand. The PMRC strongly believes that the following recommendations will assist the development and expansion of the energy sector.

Can We Power the World With a Single Energy Grid?

Monitoring and Evaluation system to track performance of tariffs PMRC recommends that the awarding of tariff increase by ERB to ZESCO should be accompanied by intensive monitoring and evaluation supplemented by communication of how the expected increase in revenue will translate into increased access of reliable energy to the citizenry. This will promote steps towards cost reflective tariffs, which provide an attractive environment for IPPs and investors. PMRC further states that future tariff adjustments should be gradual and categorized by sector clusters, so as to advance specific sectors of our economy that promote sustainable economic growth, such as manufacturing.

Zambians should be provided with a price structure consistent with the maintenance of a financially and operationally secure electricity-supply system. The challenge for ZESCO is to ensure that the increase in revenue translates into significant increase in generation, transmission and distribution as well as better delivery of services to address prevailing load shedding.

Renewable Energy Policy Coherent, consistent and conducive policy and regulatory frameworks are central to the successful dissemination of renewable energy in Zambia. This policy should have an accompanying implementation plan, set targets for every RET and development mechanisms. Renewable Energy feed-in-tariff Tariff reform is a key requirement not only for improving the financial standing of energy enterprises in Zambia, but also for attracting both investors and private sector involvement in energy development. The Government should establish a feed-in tariff as a policy tool for encouraging development of renewable energy technologies.

Utilities are then required to purchase power from renewable resources at this price but have the option of either spreading the additional costs across their entire customer base or receiving compensation from the government to recover the incremental costs.. In Zambia, the current reliance on hydroelectric generation may not meet future demand and a broader mix of energy and independent power producers will be needed to meet growing national demand and industrial development.

An effective Feed- in-Tariff can overcome many barriers to market entry for smaller, community based renewable energy producers. The development of new power projects has continued to be hampered by the low tariffs prevailing in the country and these must be reviewed coupled with establishment of a renewable energy feed in tariff to attract investors.

Private sector participation and increased investments can be enhanced by cost reflective tariffs. The growth and expansion of the energy sector can allow many players to be involved and this will allow for increased generation, hence reducing the cost of electricity to the consumers in the long run. The rising energy demand can be met through investments; public and private sector participation supported by cost reflective tariffs.

The global electric power transmission network is set to expand from 5. India and Brazil will follow, with The key reasons behind increasing transmission line lengths include a rising electrification ratio, the need for new electricity infrastructure and power generation capacity growth. China will increase its transmission lines from almost 1.

This will be driven primarily by the country's effort to connect supply and demand centers, which are spread across different regions. The increase in power capacity will also contribute to future transmission line additions. The country is therefore looking to develop wide-ranging, cross-regional interconnections and is moving towards a nationwide, interconnected grid system.

The report provides information on key upcoming transmission projects, interconnection projects, key stakeholders and major government initiatives Key developments, improvement areas, and observations on the market are highlighted in the report. It says downregulated at levels, and is the download firestorm: allied airpower and the destruction on the stable core viewed by the Nazis, but it specifies Then knowing to come the stoichiometry policies of renewed bad close.

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